The geographical pivot of history also known as the heartland theory or simply the pivot of history is a geostrategic theory that was first proposed by halford john mackinder in 1904. Halford mackinders seminal paper on the would not tend to reduce the geographical significance of the pivot the geographical pivot of history . The pivot of history the geographical pivot of history published in the geographical journal and written by sir halford mackinder . Fifty years ago halford john mackinder delivered a lecture on the geographical pivot of history before the royal geographical society in london supported by five diagrams it was published by the society in april 1904i together with comments by several students of geography. When discussing the history scope and effectiveness of geopolitical theories the geographical pivot of history by sir halford mackinder is the definitive starting point for the western world
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